2 ; 2 ; in Month : October (2020) Article No : sphrj-v2-1010
Szmodis M, Bosnyák E, Protzner A, Trájer E, Fark

Abstract
Regular physical activity has favourable influence on the bone status. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationships between the bone quality index (BQI) in the calcaneus and anthropometric variables in male elite athletes. Participants were Hungarian elite male athletes: kayak-canoe (KC, n=43); triathlon (T, n=16); track & field (TF, n=46); water-polo (WP, n=19). Their physique was characterised by Heath-Carter somatotype. Calcaneal Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS) parameters were registered by Sonost3000 densitometer. Differences in bone quality between the groups and correlation patterns between QUS and physique were analysed (p<0.05). There were significant differences in QUS parameters. T and TF had significantly higher SOS (speed of sound, m/s) values than WP. KC had lower SOS values than T athletes (TF: 1519.3±16.0; T: 1512.9±20.8; KC: 1505.6±12.4; W: 1495.1±10.8. BUA (broadband ultrasound attenuation, dB/MHz) was the largestest in TF but this only differed significantly from WP (TF: 106.5±14.8; T: 98.9±11.5; KC: 98.7±16.5; WP: 92.2±8.8). BQI (αSOS+βBUA) was higher in TF (92.0±16.7) than in KC (79.2±13.1), WP (69.3±10.0); it was higher in T (84.8±19.6) than WP. Muscle percentage correlated positively, while absolute bone measurements correlated inversely with bone parameters. Higher QUS values were associated with lower endomorphy and mesomorphy, while more linear physiques correlated with better bone parameters. Physique and type of exercise training appear to be associated with bone status. Both weight-bearing and non-weight bearing exercise improve calcaneus bone parameters such as BQI to different extents. It might be preferable to combine some weight-bearing exercise during the sessions, and it is also highly recommended after a competitive period and during recreational sport activities.

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